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双语||毛泽东:论持久战 | 句句对齐
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1
论持久战
ON PROTRACTED WAR

(一九三八年五月)
May 1938
* 这是毛泽东一九三八年五月二十六日至六月三日在延安抗日战争研究会的讲演。
[This series of lectures was delivered by Comrade Mao Tse-tung from May 26 to June 3, 1938, at the Yenan Association for the Study of the War of Resistance Against Japan.]
问题的提起
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
(一)伟大抗日战争的一周年纪念,七月七日,快要到了。
1. It will soon be July 7, the first anniversary of the great War of Resistance Against Japan.
全民族的力量团结起来,坚持抗战,坚持统一战线,同敌人作英勇的战争,快一年了。
Rallying in unity, persevering in resistance and persevering in the united front, the forces of the whole nation have been valiantly fighting the enemy for almost a year.
这个战争,在东方历史上是空前的,在世界历史上也将是伟大的,全世界人民都关心这个战争。
The people of the whole world are attentively following this war, which has no precedent in the history of the East, and which will go down as a great war in world history too.
身受战争灾难、为着自己民族的生存而奋斗的每一个中国人,无日不在渴望战争的胜利。
Every Chinese suffering from the disasters of the war and fighting for the survival of his nation daily yearns for victory.
然而战争的过程究竟会要怎么样?
But what actually will be the course of the war?
能胜利还是不能胜利?
Can we win?
能速胜还是不能速胜?
Can we win quickly?
很多人都说持久战,但是为什么是持久战?
Many people are talking about a protracted war, but why is it a protracted war?
怎样进行持久战?
How to carry on a protracted war?
很多人都说最后胜利,但是为什么会有最后胜利?
Many people are talking about Final victory, but why will final victory be ours?
怎样争取最后胜利?
How shall we strive for final victory?
这些问题,不是每个人都解决了的,甚至是大多数人至今没有解决的。
Not everyone has found answers to these questions; in fact, to this day most people have not done so.
于是失败主义的亡国论者跑出来向人们说:中国会亡,最后胜利不是中国的。
Therefore the defeatist exponents of the theory of national subjugation have come forward to tell people that China will be subjugated, that final victory will not be China's.
某些性急的朋友们也跑出来向人们说:中国很快就能战胜,无需乎费大气力。
On the other hand, some impetuous friends have come forward to tell people that China will win very quickly without having to exert any great effort.
这些议论究竟对不对呢?
But are these views correct?
我们一向都说:这些议论是不对的。
We have said all along they are not.
可是我们说的,还没有为大多数人所了解。
However, most people have not yet grasped what we have been saying.
一半因为我们的宣传解释工作还不够,一半也因为客观事变的发展还没有完全暴露其固有的性质,还没有将其面貌鲜明地摆在人们之前,使人们无从看出其整个的趋势和前途,因而无从决定自己的整套的方针和做法。
This is partly because we did not do enough propaganda and explanatory work, and partly because the development of objective events had not yet fully and clearly revealed their inherent nature and their features to the people, who were thus not in a position to foresee the over-all trend and the outcome and hence to decide on a complete set of policies and tactics.
现在好了,抗战十个月的经验,尽够击破毫无根据的亡国论,也尽够说服急性朋友们的速胜论了。
Now things are better, the experience of ten months of war has been quite sufficient to explode the utterly baseless theory of national subjugation and to dissuade our impetuous friends from their theory of quick victory.
在这种情形下,很多人要求做个总结性的解释。
In these circumstances many people are asking for a comprehensive explanation.
尤其是对持久战,有亡国论和速胜论的反对意见,也有空洞无物的了解。
All the more so with regard to protracted war, not only because of the opposing theories of national subjugation and quick victory but also because of the shallow understanding of its nature.
“卢沟桥事变[1]以来,四万万人一齐努力,最后胜利是中国的。”
"Our four hundred million people have been making a concerted effort since the Lukouchiao Incident, and the final victory will belong to China."
这样一种公式,在广大的人们中流行着。
This formula has a wide currency.
这个公式是对的,但有加以充实的必要。
It is a correct formula but needs to be given more content.
抗日战争和统一战线之所以能够坚持,是由于许多的因素:
Our perseverance in the War of Resistance and in the united front has been possible because of many factors.
全国党派,从共产党到国民党;全国人民,从工人农民到资产阶级;全国军队,从主力军到游击队;
Internally, they comprise all the political parties in the country from the Communist Party to the Kuomintang, all the people from the workers and peasants to the bourgeoisie, and all the armed forces from the regular forces to the guerrillas;
国际方面,从社会主义国家到各国爱好正义的人民;敌国方面,从某些国内反战的人民到前线反战的兵士。
internationally, they range from the land of socialism to justice-loving people in all countries; in the camp of the enemy, they range from those people in Japan who are against the war to those Japanese soldiers at the front who are against the war.
总而言之,所有这些因素,在我们的抗战中都尽了他们各种程度的努力。
In short, all these forces have contributed in varying degrees to our War of Resistance.
每一个有良心的人,都应向他们表示敬意。
Every man with a conscience should salute them.
我们共产党人,同其它抗战党派和全国人民一道,唯一的方向,是努力团结一切力量,战胜万恶的日寇。
We Communists, together with all the other ant-Japanese political parties and the whole people, have no other course than to strive to unite all forces for the defeat of the diabolical Japanese aggressors.
今年七月一日,是中国共产党建立的十七周年纪念日。
July 1 this year will be the 17th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China.
为了使每个共产党员在抗日战争中能够尽其更好和更大的努力,也有着重地研究持久战的必要。
A serious study of protracted war is necessary in order to enable every Communist to play a better and greater part in the War of Resistance.
因此,我的讲演就来研究持久战。
Therefore my lectures will be devoted to such a study.
和持久战这个题目有关的问题,我都准备说到;但是不能一切都说到,因为一切的东西,不是在一个讲演中完全说得了的。
I shall try to speak on all the problems relevant to the protracted war, but I cannot possibly go into everything in one series of lectures.
(二)抗战十个月以来,一切经验都证明下述两种观点的不对:一种是中国必亡论,一种是中国速胜论。
2. All the experience of the ten months of war proves the error both of the theory of China's inevitable subjugation and of the theory of China's quick victory.
前者产生妥协倾向,后者产生轻敌倾向。
The former gives rise to the tendency to compromise and the latter to the tendency to underestimate the enemy.
他们看问题的方法都是主观的和片面的,一句话,非科学的。
Both approaches to the problem are subjective and one-sided, or, in a word, unscientific.
(三)抗战以前,存在着许多亡国论的议论。
3. Before the War of Resistance, there was a great deal of talk about national subjugation.
例如说:“中国武器不如人,战必败。”
Some said, "China is inferior in arms and is bound to lose in a war."
“如果抗战,必会作阿比西尼亚[2]。”
Others said, "If China offers armed resistance, she is sure to become another Abyssinia."
抗战以后,公开的亡国论没有了,但暗地是有的,而且很多。
Since the beginning of the war, open talk of national subjugation has disappeared, but secret talk, and quite a lot of it too, still continues.
例如妥协的空气时起时伏,主张妥协者的根据就是“再战必亡”[3]。
For instance, from time to time an atmosphere of compromise arises and the advocates of compromise argue that "the continuance of the war spells subjugation".[1]
有个学生从湖南写信来说:“在乡下一切都感到困难。
In a letter from Hunan a student has written: In the countryside everything seems difficult.
单独一个人作宣传工作,只好随时随地找人谈话。
Doing propaganda work on my own, I have to talk to people when and where I find them.
对象都不是无知无识的愚民,他们多少也懂得一点,他们对我的谈话很有兴趣。
The people I have talked to are by no means ignoramuses; they all have some understanding of what is going on and are very interested in what I have to say.
可是碰了我那几位亲戚,他们总说:‘中国打不胜,会亡。’
But when I run into my own relatives, they always say: "China cannot win; she is doomed."
讨厌极了。
They make one sick !
好在他们还不去宣传,不然真糟。
Fortunately, they do not go around spreading their views, otherwise things would really be bad.
农民对他们的信仰当然要大些啊!”
The peasants would naturally put more stock in what they say.
这类中国必亡论者,是妥协倾向的社会基础。
Such exponents of the theory of China's inevitable subjugation form the social basis of the tendency to compromise.
这类人中国各地都有,因此,抗日阵线中随时可能发生的妥协问题,恐怕终战争之局也不会消灭的。
They are to be found everywhere in China, and therefore the problem of compromise is liable to crop up within the anti-Japanese front at any time and will probably remain with us right until the end of the war.
当此徐州失守武汉紧张的时候,给这种亡国论痛驳一驳,我想不是无益的。
Now that Hsuchow has fallen and Wuhan is in danger, it will not be unprofitable, I think, to knock the bottom out of the theory of national subjugation.
(四)抗战十个月以来,各种表现急性病的意见也发生了。
4. During these ten months of war all kinds of views which are indicative of impetuosity have also appeared.
例如在抗战初起时,许多人有一种毫无根据的乐观倾向,他们把日本估计过低,甚至以为日本不能打到山西。
For instance, at the outset of the war many people were groundlessly optimistic, underestimating Japan and even believing that the Japanese could not get as far as ShansI.
有些人轻视抗日战争中游击战争的战略地位,他们对于“在全体上,运动战是主要的,游击战是辅助的;
Some belittled the strategic role of guerrilla warfare in the War of Resistance and doubted the proposition, "With regard to the whole, mobile warfare is primary and guerrilla warfare supplementary;
在部分上,游击战是主要的,运动战是辅助的”这个提法,表示怀疑。
with regard to the parts, guerrilla warfare is primary and mobile warfare supplementary."
他们不赞成八路军这样的战略方针:“基本的是游击战,但不放松有利条件下的运动战。”
They disagreed with the Eighth Route Army's strategy, "Guerrilla warfare is basic, but lose no chance for mobile warfare under favourable conditions",
认为这是“机械的”观点[4]。
which they regarded as a "mechanical" approach.[2]
上海战争时,有些人说:“只要打三个月,国际局势一定变化,苏联一定出兵,战争就可解决。”
During the battle of Shanghai some people said: "If we can fight for just three months, the international situation is bound to change, the Soviet Union is bound to send troops, and the war will be over."
把抗战的前途主要地寄托在外国援助上面[5]。
They pinned their hopes for the future of the War of Resistance chiefly on foreign aid.[3]
台儿庄胜利[6]之后,有些人主张徐州战役[7]应是“准决战”,说过去的持久战方针应该改变。
After the Taierhchuang victory,[4] some people maintained that the Hsuchow campaign should be fought as a "quasi-decisive campaign" and that the policy of protracted war should be changed.
说什么“这一战,就是敌人的最后挣扎”,“我们胜了,日阀就在精神上失了立场,只有静候末日审判”[8]。
They said such things as, "This campaign marks the last desperate struggle of the enemy," or, "If we win, the Japanese warlords will be demoralized and able only to await their Day of Judgement."[5]
平型关一个胜仗,冲昏了一些人的头脑;台儿庄再一个胜仗,冲昏了更多的人的头脑。
The victory at Pinghsingkuan turned some people's heads, and further victory at Taierhchuang has turned more people's heads.
于是敌人是否进攻武汉,成为疑问了。
Doubts have arisen as to whether the enemy will attack Wuhan.
许多人以为:“不一定”;许多人以为:“断不会”。
Many people think "probably not", and many others "definitely not".
这样的疑问可以牵涉到一切重大的问题。
Such doubts may affect all major issues.
例如说:抗日力量是否够了呢?
For instance, is our anti-Japanese strength already sufficient?
回答可以是肯定的,因为现在的力量已使敌人不能再进攻,还要增加力量干什么呢?
Some people may answer affirmatively, for our present strength is already sufficient to check the enemy's advance, so why increase it?
例如说:巩固和扩大抗日民族统一战线的口号是否依然正确呢?
Or, for instance, is the slogan "Consolidate and expand the Anti-Japanese National United Front" still correct?
回答可以是否定的,因为统一战线的现时状态已够打退敌人,还要什么巩固和扩大呢?
Some people may answer negatively, for the united front in its present state is already strong enough to repulse the enemy, so why consolidate and expand it?
例如说:国际外交和国际宣传工作是否还应该加紧呢?
Or, for instance, should our efforts in diplomacy and international propaganda be intensified?
回答也可以是否定的。
Here again the answer may be in the negative.
例如说:改革军队制度,改革政治制度,发展民众运动,厉行国防教育,镇压汉奸托派[9],发展军事工业,改良人民生活,是否应该认真去做呢?
Or, for instance, should we proceed in earnest to reform the army system and the system of government, develop the mass movement, enforce education for national defence, suppress traitors and Trotskyites, develop war industries and improve the people's livelihood?
例如说:保卫武汉、保卫广州、保卫西北和猛烈发展敌后游击战争的口号,是否依然正确呢?
Or, for instance, are the slogans calling for the defence of Wuhan, of Canton and of the Northwest and for the vigorous development of guerrilla warfare in the enemy's rear still correct?
回答都可以是否定的。
The answers might all be in the negative.
甚至某些人在战争形势稍为好转的时候,就准备在国共两党之间加紧磨擦一下,把对外的眼光转到对内。
There are even some people who, the moment a slightly favourable turn occurs in the war situation, are prepared to intensify the "friction" between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, diverting attention from external to internal matters.
这种情况,差不多每一个较大的胜仗之后,或敌人进攻暂时停顿之时,都要发生。
This almost invariably occurs whenever a comparatively big battle is won or the enemy's advance comes to a temporary halt.
所有上述一切,我们叫它做政治上军事上的近视眼。
All the above can be termed political and military short-sightedness.
这些话,讲起来好像有道理,实际上是毫无根据、似是而非的空谈。
Such talk, however plausible, is actually specious and groundless.
扫除这些空谈,对于进行胜利的抗日战争,应该是有好处的。
To sweep away such verbiage should help the victorious prosecution of the War of Resistance.
(五)于是问题是:中国会亡吗?
5. The question now is: Will China be subjugated?
答复:不会亡,最后胜利是中国的。
The answer is, No, she will not be subjugated, but will win final victory.
中国能够速胜吗?
Can China win quickly?
答复:不能速胜,抗日战争是持久战。
The answer is, No, she cannot win quickly, and the War of Resistance will be a protracted war.
(六)这些问题的主要论点,还在两年之前我们就一般地指出了。
6. As early as two years ago, we broadly indicated the main arguments on these questions.
还在一九三六年七月十六日,即在西安事变前五个月,卢沟桥事变前十二个月,我同美国记者斯诺先生的谈话中,就已经一般地估计了中日战争的形势,并提出了争取胜利的各种方针。
On July 16, 1936, five months before the Sian Incident and twelve months before the Lukouchiao Incident, in an interview with the American correspondent, Mr. Edgar Snow, I made a general estimate of the situation with regard to war between China and Japan and advanced various principles for winning victory.
为备忘计,不妨抄录几段如下:
The following excerpts may serve as a reminder:
问:在什么条件下,中国能战胜并消灭日本帝国主义的实力呢?
Question: Under what conditions do you think China can defeat and destroy the forces of Japan?
答:要有三个条件:第一是中国抗日统一战线的完成;第二是国际抗日统一战线的完成;第三是日本国内人民和日本殖民地人民的革命运动的兴起。
Answer: Three conditions are required: first, the establishment of an anti-Japanese united front in China; second, the formation of an international anti-Japanese united front; third, the rise of the revolutionary movement of the people in Japan and the Japanese colonies.
就中国人民的立场来说,三个条件中,中国人民的大联合是主要的。
From the standpoint of the Chinese people, the unity of the people of China is the most important of the three conditions.
问:你想,这个战争要延长多久呢?
Question: How long do you think such a war would last?
答:要看中国抗日统一战线的实力和中日两国其它许多决定的因素如何而定。
Answer: That depends on the strength of China's anti-Japanese united front and many other conditioning factors involving China and Japan.
即是说,除了主要地看中国自己的力量之外,国际间所给中国的援助和日本国内革命的援助也很有关系。
That is to say, apart from China's own strength, which is the main thing, international help to China and the help rendered by the revolution in Japan are also important.
如果中国抗日统一战线有力地发展起来,横的方面和纵的方面都有效地组织起来,如果认清日本帝国主义威胁他们自己利益的各国政府和各国人民能给中国以必要的援助,如果日本的革命起来得快,则这次战争将迅速结束,中国将迅速胜利。
If China's anti-Japanese united front is greatly expanded and effectively organized horizontally and vertically, if the necessary help is given to China by those governments and peoples which recognize the Japanese imperialist menace to their own interests and if revolution comes quickly in Japan, the war will speedily be brought to an end and China will speedily win victory.
如果这些条件不能很快实现,战争就要延长。
If these conditions are not realized quickly, the war will be prolonged.
但结果还是一样,日本必败,中国必胜。
But in the end, just the same, Japan will certainly be defeated and China will certainly be victorious.
只是牺牲会大,要经过一个很痛苦的时期。
Only the sacrifices will be great and there will be a very painful period.
问:从政治上和军事上来看,你以为这个战争的前途会要如何发展?
Question: What is your opinion of the probable course of development of such a war, politically and militarily?
答:日本的大陆政策已经确定了,那些以为同日本妥协,再牺牲一些中国的领土主权就能够停止日本进攻的人们,他们的想法只是一种幻想。
Answer: Japan's continental policy is already fixed, and those who think they can halt the Japanese advance by making compromises with Japan at the expense of more Chinese territory and sovereign rights are indulging in mere fantasy.
我们确切地知道,就是扬子江下游和南方各港口,都已经包括在日本帝国主义的大陆政策之内。
We definitely know that the lower Yangtse valley and our southern seaports are already included in the continental programme of Japanese imperialism.
并且日本还想占领菲律宾、暹罗、越南、马来半岛和荷属东印度,把外国和中国切开,独占西南太平洋。
Moreover, Japan wants to occupy the Philippines, Siam, Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula and the Dutch East Indies in order to cut off other countries from China and monopolize the southwestern Pacific.
这又是日本的海洋政策。
This is Japan's maritime policy.
在这样的时期,中国无疑地要处于极端困难的地位。
In such a period, China will undoubtedly be in an extremely difficult position.
可是大多数中国人相信,这种困难是能够克服的;只有各大商埠的富人是失败论者,因为他们害怕损失财产。
But the majority of the Chinese people believe that such difficulties can be overcome; only the rich in the big port cities are defeatists because they are afraid of losing their property.
有许多人想,一旦中国海岸被日本封锁,中国就不能继续作战。
Many people think it would be impossible for China to continue the war, once her coastline is blockaded by Japan.
这是废话。
This is nonsense.
为反驳他们,我们不妨举出红军的战争史。
To refute them we need only cite the war history of the Red Army.
在抗日战争中,中国所占的优势,比内战时红军的地位强得多。
In the present War of Resistance Against Japan, China's position is much superior to that of the Red Army in the civil war.
中国是一个庞大的国家,就是日本能占领中国一万万至二万万人口的区域,我们离战败还很远呢。
China is a vast country, and even if Japan should succeed in occupying a section of China with as many as 100 to 200 million people, we would still be far from defeated.
我们仍然有很大的力量同日本作战,而日本在整个战争中须得时时在其后方作防御战。
We would still have ample strength to fight against Japan, while the Japanese would have to fight defensive battles in their rear throughout the war.
中国经济的不统一、不平衡,对于抗日战争反为有利。
The heterogeneity and uneven development of China's economy are rather advantageous in the war of resistance.
例如将上海和中国其它地方割断,对于中国的损害,绝没有将纽约和美国其它地方割断对于美国的损害那样严重。
For example, to sever Shanghai from the rest of China would definitely not be as disastrous to China as would be the severance of New York from the rest of the United States.
日本就是把中国沿海封锁,中国的西北、西南和西部,它是无法封锁的。
Even if Japan blockades the Chinese coastline, it is impossible for her to blockade China's Northwest, Southwest and West.
所以问题的中心点还是中国全体人民团结起来,树立举国一致的抗日阵线。
Thus, once more the central point of the problem is the unity of the entire Chinese people and the building up of a nation-wide anti-Japanese front.
这是我们早就提出了的。
This is what we have long been advocating.
问:假如战争拖得很长,日本没有完全战败,共产党能否同意讲和,并承认日本统治东北?
Question: If the war drags on for a long time and Japan is not completely defeated, would the Communist Party agree to the negotiation of a peace with Japan and recognize her rule in northeastern China?
答:不能。
Answer: No.
中国共产党和全国人民一样,不容许日本保留中国的寸土。
Like the people of the whole country, the Chinese Communist Party will not allow Japan to retain an inch of Chinese territory.
问:照你的意见,这次解放战争,主要的战略方针是什么?
Question: What, in your opinion, should be the main strategy and tactics to be followed in this "war of liberation"?
答:我们的战略方针,应该是使用我们的主力在很长的变动不定的战线上作战。
Answer: Our strategy should be to employ our main forces to operate over an extended and fluid front.
中国军队要胜利,必须在广阔的战场上进行高度的运动战,迅速地前进和迅速地后退,迅速地集中和迅速地分散。
To achieve success, the Chinese troops must conduct their warfare with a high degree of mobility on extensive battlefields, making swift advances and withdrawals, swift concentrations and dispersals.
这就是大规模的运动战,而不是深沟高垒、层层设防、专靠防御工事的阵地战。
This means large-scale mobile warfare, and not positional warfare depending exclusively on defence works with deep trenches, high fortresses and successive rows of defensive positions.
这并不是说要放弃一切重要的军事地点,对于这些地点,只要有利,就应配置阵地战。
It does not mean the abandonment of all the vital strategic points, which should be defended by positional warfare as long as profitable.
但是转换全局的战略方针,必然要是运动战。
But the pivotal strategy must be mobile warfare.
阵地战虽也必需,但是属于辅助性质的第二种的方针。
Positional warfare is also necessary, but strategically it is auxiliary and secondary.
在地理上,战场这样广大,我们作最有效的运动战,是可能的。
Geographically the theatre of the war is so vast that it is possible for us to conduct mobile warfare most effectively.
日军遇到我军的猛烈活动,必得谨慎。
In the face of the vigorous actions of our forces, the Japanese army will have to be cautious.
他们的战争机构很笨重,行动很慢,效力有限。
Its war-machine is ponderous and slow-moving, with limited efficiency.
如果我们集中兵力在一个狭小的阵地上作消耗战的抵抗,将使我军失掉地理上和经济组织上的有利条件,犯阿比西尼亚的错误。
If we concentrate our forces on a narrow front for a defensive war of attrition, we would be throwing away the advantages of our geography and economic organization and repeating the mistake of Abyssinia.
战争的前期,我们要避免一切大的决战,要先用运动战逐渐地破坏敌人军队的精神和战斗力。
In the early period of the war, we must avoid any major decisive battles, and must first employ mobile warfare gradually to break the morale and combat effectiveness of the enemy troops.
除了调动有训练的军队进行运动战之外,还要在农民中组织很多的游击队。
Besides employing trained armies to carry on mobile warfare, we must organize great numbers of guerrilla units among the peasants.
须知东三省的抗日义勇军,仅仅是表示了全国农民所能动员抗战的潜伏力量的一小部分。
One should know that the anti-Japanese volunteer units in the three northeastern provinces are only a minor demonstration of the latent power of resistance that can be mobilized from the peasants of the whole country.
中国农民有很大的潜伏力,只要组织和指挥得当,能使日本军队一天忙碌二十四小时,使之疲于奔命。
The Chinese peasants have very great latent power; properly organized and directed, they can keep the Japanese army busy twenty-four hours a day and worry it to death.
必须记住这个战争是在中国打的,这就是说,日军要完全被敌对的中国人所包围;
It must be remembered that the war will be fought in China, that is to say, the Japanese army will be entirely surrounded by the hostile Chinese people,
日军要被迫运来他们所需的军用品,而且要自己看守;他们要用重兵去保护交通线,时时谨防袭击;另外,还要有一大部力量驻扎满洲和日本内地。
it will be forced to move in all its provisions and guard them, it must use large numbers of troops to protect its lines of communications and constantly guard against attacks and it needs large forces to garrison Manchuria and Japan as well.
在战争的过程中,中国能俘虏许多的日本兵,夺取许多的武器弹药来武装自己;同时,争取外国的援助,使中国军队的装备逐渐加强起来。
In the course of the war, China will be able to capture many Japanese soldiers and seize many weapons and munitions with which to arm herself; at the same time China will win foreign aid to reinforce the equipment of her troops gradually.
因此,中国能够在战争的后期从事阵地战,对于日本的占领地进行阵地的攻击。
Therefore China will be able to conduct positional warfare in the latter period of the war and make positional attacks on the Japanese-occupied areas.
这样,日本在中国抗战的长期消耗下,它的经济行将崩溃;在无数战争的消磨中,它的士气行将颓靡。
Thus Japan's economy will crack under the strain of China's long resistance and the morale of the Japanese forces will break under the trial of innumerable battles.
中国方面,则抗战的潜伏力一天一天地奔腾高涨,大批的革命民众不断地倾注到前线去,为自由而战争。
On the Chinese side, however, the growing latent power of resistance will be constantly brought into play and large numbers of revolutionary people will be pouring into the front lines to fight for their freedom.
所有这些因素和其它的因素配合起来,就使我们能够对日本占领地的堡垒和根据地,作最后的致命的攻击,驱逐日本侵略军出中国。(斯诺:《西北印象记》)
The combination of all these and other factors will enable us to make the final and decisive attacks on the fortifications and bases in the Japanese-occupied areas and drive the Japanese forces of aggression out of China.
抗战十个月的经验,证明上述论点的正确,以后也还将继续证明它。
The above views have been proved correct in the light of the experience of the ten months of war and will also be borne out in the future.
(七)还在卢沟桥事变发生后一个多月,即一九三七年八月二十五日,中国共产党中央就在它的《关于目前形势与党的任务的决定》中,清楚地指出:
7. As far back as August 25, 1937, less than two months after the Lukouchiao Incident, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party clearly pointed out in its "Resolution on the Present Situation and the Tasks of the Party":
卢沟桥的挑战和平津的占领,不过是日寇大举进攻中国本部的开始。
The military provocation by the Japanese aggressors at Lukouchiao and their occupation of Peiping and Tientsin represent only the beginning of their large-scale invasion of China south of the Great Wall.
日寇已经开始了全国的战时动员。
They have already begun their national mobilization for war.
他们的所谓“不求扩大”的宣传,不过是掩护其进攻的烟幕弹。
Their propaganda that they have "no desire to aggravate the situation" is only a smokescreen for further attacks.
七月七日卢沟桥的抗战,已经成了中国全国性抗战的起点。
The resistance at Lukouchiao on July 7 marked the starting point of China's national War of Resistance.
中国的政治形势从此开始了一个新阶段,这就是实行抗战的阶段。
Thus a new stage has opened in China's political situation, the stage of actual resistance.
抗战的准备阶段已经过去了。
The stage of preparation for resistance is over.
这一阶段的最中心的任务是:动员一切力量争取抗战的胜利。
In the present stage the central task is to mobilize all the nation's forces for victory in the War of Resistance.
争取抗战胜利的中心关键,在使已经发动的抗战发展为全面的全民族的抗战。
The key to victory in the war now lies in developing the resistance that has already begun into a war of total resistance by the whole nation.
只有这种全面的全民族的抗战,才能使抗战得到最后的胜利。
Only through such a war of total resistance can final victory be won.
由于当前的抗战还存在着严重的弱点,所以在今后的抗战过程中,可能发生许多挫败、退却,内部的分化、叛变,暂时和局部的妥协等不利的情况。
The existence of serious weaknesses in the War of Resistance may lead to many setbacks, retreats, internal splits, betrayals, temporary and partial compromises and other such reverses.
因此,应该看到这一抗战是艰苦的持久战。
Therefore it should be realized that the war will be an arduous and protracted war.
但我们相信,已经发动的抗战,必将因为我党和全国人民的努力,冲破一切障碍物而继续地前进和发展。
But we are confident that, through the efforts of our Party and the whole people, the resistance already started will sweep aside all obstacles and continue to advance and develop.
抗战十个月的经验,同样证明了上述论点的正确,以后也还将继续证明它。
The above thesis, too, has been proved correct in the light of the experience of the ten months of war and will also be borne out in the future.
(八)战争问题中的唯心论和机械论的倾向,是一切错误观点的认识论上的根源。
8. Epistemologically speaking, the source of all erroneous views on war lies in idealist and mechanistic tendencies on the question.
他们看问题的方法是主观的和片面的。
People with such tendencies are subjective and one-sided in their approach to problems.
或者是毫无根据地纯主观地说一顿;或者是只根据问题的一侧面、一时候的表现,也同样主观地把它夸大起来,当作全体看。
They either indulge in groundless and purely subjective talk, or, basing themselves upon a single aspect or a temporary manifestation, magnify it with similar subjectivity into the whole of the problem.
但是人们的错误观点可分为两类:一类是根本的错误,带一贯性,这是难于纠正的;另一类是偶然的错误,带暂时性,这是易于纠正的。
But there are two categories of erroneous views, one comprising fundamental, and therefore consistent, errors which are hard to correct, and the other comprising accidental, and therefore temporary, errors which are easy to correct.
但既同为错误,就都有纠正的必要。
Since both are wrong, both need to be corrected.
因此,反对战争问题中的唯心论和机械论的倾向,采用客观的观点和全面的观点去考察战争,才能使战争问题得出正确的结论。
Therefore, only by opposing idealist and mechanistic tendencies and taking an objective and all-sided view in making a study of war can we draw correct conclusions on the question of war.
问题的根据
THE BASIS OF THE PROBLEM
(九)抗日战争为什么是持久战?
9. Why is the War of Resistance Against Japan a protracted war?
最后胜利为什么是中国的呢?
Why will the final victory be China's?
根据在什么地方呢?
What is the basis for these statements?
中日战争不是任何别的战争,乃是半殖民地半封建的中国和帝国主义的日本之间在二十世纪三十年代进行的一个决死的战争。
The war between China and Japan is not just any war, it is specifically a war of life and death between semi-colonial and semi-feudal China and imperialist Japan, fought in the Nineteen Thirties.
全部问题的根据就在这里。
Herein lies the basis of the whole problem.
分别地说来,战争的双方有如下互相反对的许多特点。
The two sides in the war have many contrasting features, which will be considered in turn below.
(一○)日本方面:
10. The Japanese side.
第一,它是一个强的帝国主义国家,它的军力、经济力和政治组织力在东方是一等的,在世界也是五六个著名帝国主义国家中的一个。
First, Japan is a powerful imperialist country, which ranks first in the East in military, economic and political-organizational power, and is one of the five or six foremost imperialist countries of the world.
这是日本侵略战争的基本条件,
These are the basic factors in Japan's war of aggression.
战争的不可避免和中国的不能速胜,就建立在这个日本国家的帝国主义制度及其强的军力、经济力和政治组织力上面。
The inevitability of the war and the impossibility of quick victory for China are due to Japan's imperialist system and her great military, economic and political-organizational power.
然而第二,由于日本社会经济的帝国主义性,就产生了日本战争的帝国主义性,它的战争是退步的和野蛮的。
Secondly, however, the imperialist character of Japan's social economy determines the imperialist character of her war, a war that is retrogressive and barbarous.
时至二十世纪三十年代的日本帝国主义,由于内外矛盾,不但使得它不得不举行空前大规模的冒险战争,而且使得它临到最后崩溃的前夜。
In the Nineteen Thirties, the internal and external contradictions of Japanese imperialism have driven her not only to embark on an adventurist war unparalleled in scale but also to approach her final collapse.
从社会行程说来,日本已不是兴旺的国家,战争不能达到日本统治阶级所期求的兴旺,而将达到它所期求的反面——日本帝国主义的死亡。
In terms of social development, Japan is no longer a thriving country; the war will not lead to the prosperity sought by her ruling classes but to the very reverse, the doom of Japanese imperialism.
这就是所谓日本战争的退步性。
This is what we mean by the retrogressive nature of Japan's war.
跟着这个退步性,加上日本又是一个带军事封建性的帝国主义这一特点,就产生了它的战争的特殊的野蛮性。
It is this reactionary quality, coupled with the military-feudal character of Japanese imperialism, that gives rise to the peculiar barbarity of Japan's war.
这样就要最大地激起它国内的阶级对立、日本民族和中国民族的对立、日本和世界大多数国家的对立。
All of which will arouse to the utmost the class antagonisms within Japan, the antagonism between the Japanese and the Chinese nations, and the antagonism between Japan and most other countries of the world.
日本战争的退步性和野蛮性是日本战争必然失败的主要根据。
The reactionary and barbarous character of Japan's war constitutes the primary reason for her inevitable defeat.
还不止此,第三,日本战争虽是在其强的军力、经济力和政治组织力的基础之上进行的,但同时又是在其先天不足的基础之上进行的。
Thirdly, Japan's war is conducted on the basis of her great military, economic and political-organizational power, but at the same time it rests on an inadequate natural endowment.
日本的军力、经济力和政治组织力虽强,但这些力量之量的方面不足。
Japan's military, economic and political-organizational power is great but quantitatively inadequate.
日本国度比较地小,其人力、军力、财力、物力均感缺乏,经不起长期的战争。
Japan is a comparatively small country, deficient in manpower and in military, financial and material resources, and she cannot stand a long war.
日本统治者想从战争中解决这个困难问题,但同样,将达到其所期求的反面,
Japan's rulers are endeavouring to resolve this difficulty through war, but again they will get the very reverse of what they desire;
这就是说,它为解决这个困难问题而发动战争,结果将因战争而增加困难,战争将连它原有的东西也消耗掉。
that is to say, the war they have launched to resolve this difficulty will eventually aggravate it and even exhaust Japan's original resources.
最后,第四,日本虽能得到国际法西斯国家的援助,但同时,却又不能不遇到一个超过其国际援助力量的国际反对力量。
Fourthly and lastly, while Japan can get international support from the fascist countries, the international opposition she is bound to encounter will be greater than her international support.
这后一种力量将逐渐地增长,终究不但将把前者的援助力量抵消,并将施其压力于日本自身。
This opposition will gradually grow and eventually not only cancel out the support but even bear down upon Japan herself.
这是失道寡助的规律,是从日本战争的本性产生出来的。
Such is the law that an unjust cause finds meagre support, and such is the consequence of the very nature of Japan's war.
总起来说,日本的长处是其战争力量之强,而其短处则在其战争本质的退步性、野蛮性,在其人力、物力之不足,在其国际形势之寡助。
To sum up, Japan's advantage lies in her great capacity to wage war, and her disadvantages lie in the reactionary and barbarous nature of her war, in the inadequacy of her manpower and material resources, and in her meagre international support.
这些就是日本方面的特点。
These are the characteristics on the Japanese side.
(一一)中国方面:
11. The Chinese side.
第一,我们是一个半殖民地半封建的国家。
First, we are a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country.
从鸦片战争[10],太平天国[11],戊戌维新[12],辛亥革命[13],直至北伐战争,一切为解除半殖民地半封建地位的革命的或改良的运动,都遭到了严重的挫折,因此依然保留下这个半殖民地半封建的地位。
The Opium War, [6] the Taiping Revolution, [7] the Reform Movement of 1898, [8] the Revolution of 1911 [9] and the Northern Expedition [10]--the revolutionary or reform movements which aimed at extricating China from her semi-colonial and semi-feudal state--all met with serious setbacks, and China remains a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country.
我们依然是一个弱国,我们在军力、经济力和政治组织力各方面都显得不如敌人。
We are still a weak country and manifestly inferior to the enemy in military, economic and political-organizational power.
战争之不可避免和中国之不能速胜,又在这个方面有其基础。
Here again one can find the basis for the inevitability of the war and the impossibility of quick victory for China.
然而第二,中国近百年的解放运动积累到了今日,已经不同于任何历史时期。
Secondly, however, China's liberation movement, with its cumulative development over the last hundred years, is now different from that of any previous period.
各种内外反对力量虽给了解放运动以严重挫折,同时却锻炼了中国人民。
Although the domestic and foreign forces opposing it have caused it serious setbacks, at the same time they have tempered the Chinese people.
今日中国的军事、经济、政治、文化虽不如日本之强,但在中国自己比较起来,却有了比任何一个历史时期更为进步的因素。
Although China today is not so strong as Japan militarily, economically, politically and culturally, yet there are factors in China more progressive than in any other period of her history.
中国共产党及其领导下的军队,就是这种进步因素的代表。
The Communist Party of China and the army under its leadership represent these progressive factors.
中国今天的解放战争,就是在这种进步的基础上得到了持久战和最后胜利的可能性。
It is on the basis of this progress that China's present war of liberation can be protracted and can achieve final victory.
中国是如日方升的国家,这同日本帝国主义的没落状态恰是相反的对照。
By contrast with Japanese imperialism, which is declining, China is a country rising like the morning sun.
中国的战争是进步的,从这种进步性,就产生了中国战争的正义性。
China's war is progressive, hence its just character.
因为这个战争是正义的,就能唤起全国的团结,激起敌国人民的同情,争取世界多数国家的援助。
Because it is a just war, it is capable of arousing the nation to unity, of evoking the sympathy of the people in Japan and of winning the support of most countries in the world.
第三,中国又是一个很大的国家,地大、物博、人多、兵多,能够支持长期的战争,这同日本又是一个相反的对比。
Thirdly, and again by contrast with Japan, China is a very big country with vast territory, rich resources, a large population and plenty of soldiers, and is capable of sustaining a long war.
最后,第四,由于中国战争的进步性、正义性而产生出来的国际广大援助,同日本的失道寡助又恰恰相反。
Fourthly and lastly, there is broad international support for China stemming from the progressive and just character of her war, which is again exactly the reverse of the meagre support for Japan's unjust cause.
总起来说,中国的短处是战争力量之弱,而其长处则在其战争本质的进步性和正义性,在其是一个大国家,在其国际形势之多助。
To sum up, China's disadvantage lies in her military weakness, and her advantages lie in the progressive and just character of her war, her great size and her abundant international support.
这些都是中国的特点。
These are China's characteristics.
(一二)这样看来,日本的军力、经济力和政治组织力是强的,但其战争是退步的、野蛮的,人力、物力又不充足,国际形势又处于不利。
12. Thus it can be seen that Japan has great military, economic and political-organizational power, but that her war is reactionary and barbarous, her manpower and material resources are inadequate, and she is in an unfavourable position internationally.
中国反是,军力、经济力和政治组织力是比较地弱的,然而正处于进步的时代,其战争是进步的和正义的,又有大国这个条件足以支持持久战,世界的多数国家是会要援助中国的。
China, on the contrary, has less military, economic and political-organizational power, but she is in her era of progress, her war is progressive and just, she is moreover a big country, a factor which enables her to sustain a protracted war, and she will be supported by most countries.
——这些,就是中日战争互相矛盾着的基本特点。
The above are the basic, mutually contradictory characteristics of the Sino-Japanese war.
这些特点,规定了和规定着双方一切政治上的政策和军事上的战略战术,规定了和规定着战争的持久性和最后胜利属于中国而不属于日本。
They have determined and are determining all the political policies and military strategies and tactics of the two sides; they have determined and are determining the protracted character of the war and its outcome, namely, that the final victory will go to China and not to Japan.
战争就是这些特点的比赛。
The war is a contest between these characteristics.
这些特点在战争过程中将各依其本性发生变化,一切东西就都从这里发生出来。
They will change in the course of the war, each according to its own nature; and from this everything else will follow.
这些特点是事实上存在的,不是虚造骗人的;是战争的全部基本要素,不是残缺不全的片段;
These characteristics exist objectively and are not invented to deceive people; they constitute all the basic elements of the war, and are not incomplete fragments;
是贯彻于双方一切大小问题和一切作战阶段之中的,不是可有可无的。
they permeate all major and minor problems on both sides and all stages of the war, and they are not matters of no consequence.
观察中日战争如果忘记了这些特点,那就必然要弄错;
If anyone forgets these characteristics in studying the Sino-Japanese war, he will surely go wrong;
即使某些意见一时有人相信,似乎不错,但战争的经过必将证明它们是错的。
and even though some of his ideas win credence for a time and may seem right, they will inevitably be proved wrong by the course of the war.
我们现在就根据这些特点来说明我们所要说的一切问题。
On the basis of these characteristics we shall now proceed to explain the problems to be dealt with.
本文转自:北极光翻译,翻译教学与研究
傅雷家书 译林版(新课标本)
作者:傅雷 朱梅馥 傅聪著 傅敏编
 
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