S1 Unit 8
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Unit 8 Mainly revision
 1. bowl 碗
 2. soup n.汤
 3. coffee n.咖啡
 4. cream n.奶油
 5. ice cream 冰淇淋
 6. offer vt. 提供
 7. corn n. 玉米
 8. discover vt.发现
 9. room n. 空间
 10. prepare vt.准备, 调制
 11. boil vi.& vt.煮
 12. butter n.黄油
 13. bean n.豆
 14. fresh adj.新鲜的
 15. ship vi.用船运
 16. cheese n.奶酪
 17. help yourself to … 自用(食物)等
 18. a lot 很多的
 19. in different ways 以不同的方法
 20. be made into 被制成
 21. get angry 生气
 22. just now 刚刚
 23. It is said that… 据说……
 24. all kinds of 各种各样的
 25. do one's best 尽某人最大努力
 1. Would you like another piece of beancurd? 再吃一块豆腐吧。
 2. How about some more…? 再来一些……怎么样?
 3. Let me give you… 我再给你来点……吧。
 4. Just a little, please. 来一点就行。
 5. No, thanks. I've had enough. 不了,我已经吃得不少了。
 6. I'm full, thank you. 我吃饱了,谢谢。
 7. Help yourself to … 请随便吃点……吧。
Unit 8 Mainly revision
*Different tastes 不同的味道
 1 sweet 甜
 2 sour 酸
 3 bitter 苦
 4 salty 咸
 5 hot, peppery, spicy 辣
 6 tender 嫩
 7 raw 生
 8 cooked 熟
 9 rare 半生半熟
 10 fresh 新鲜
 11 rich; oily; greasy 油腻
 12 light 清淡
 13 tasteless 无味
 14 tasty, delicious 味道好

*Ways of cooking 烹调方法
 1 deep fried 炸
 2 fried 煎
 3 roasted 烤
 4 braised 焖
 5 stir-fried 炒
 6 boiled 煮
 7 assorted 烩
 8 baked 烤,烘
 9 smoked 熏
 10 salted 腌

*Meat 肉类
 1 chicken 鸡肉
 2 beef 牛肉
 3 pork 猪肉
 4 mutton 羊肉
 5 ham 火腿
 6 sausage 香肠
 7 pork chop 猪排
 8 beef steak 牛排
 9 duck 鸭
 10 mandarin fish 桂鱼
 11 herring 青鱼
 12 eel 鳝鱼
 13 carp 鲤鱼
 14 sardine 沙丁鱼
 15 prawn 对虾
 16 lobster 龙虾
 17 trout 鳟鱼
 18 salmon 三文鱼
 19 crab 螃蟹
 20 sea blubber 海蛰
 21 oyster 蚝
 22 scallop 扇贝
 23 sea slug 海参

*Seasonings 调味品
 1 paste 酱
 2 soy sauce 酱油
 3 hot sauce 辣酱
 4 sesame oil 香油
 5 pepper 胡椒
 6 tomato sauce 番茄酱
 7 black pepper 黑胡椒
 8 jam 果酱
 9 curry 咖喱
 10 gourmet powder 味精
 11 spice 香料

*Fruits 水果
 1 apricot 杏
 2 crab apple 山楂
 3 lichee 荔枝
 4 walnut 核桃
 5 persimmon 柿子
 6 strawberry 草莓
 7 date 枣
 8 red plum 李子
 9 sugar cane 甘蔗
 10 watermelon 西瓜

*Vegetables 蔬菜
 1 celery 芹菜
 2 spinach 菠菜
 3 cabbage 卷心菜
 4 peas 豌豆
 5 white beans 扁豆
 6 French beans 豆角
 7 green pepper 青椒
 8 garlic 蒜
 9 onion 洋葱
 10 ginger 姜
 11 turnip 萝卜
 12 bamboo shoots 竹笋
 13 spring onion 葱

*Drinks 饮料
 1 black tea 红茶
 2 green tea 绿茶
 3 jasmine tea 花茶
 4 black coffee 清咖啡
 5 cocoa 可可
 6 coca-cola 可口可乐
 7 orange juice 橘子水
 8 lemonade 柠檬水
 9 lemon tea 柠檬茶
 10 rice wine 黄酒
 11 red wine 红葡萄酒
 12 white wine 白葡萄酒
 13 whisky 威士忌
 14 Brandy 白兰地

*Tableware 餐具
 1 napkin 餐巾
 2 tea spoon 茶匙
 3 table spoon 汤匙
 4 fork 餐叉
 5 knife 餐刀
 6 chopsticks 筷子
 7 tooth picks 牙签

 1 fast food 快餐
 2 health food 健康食品
 3 instant noodle 方便面
 4 instant food 方便食品
 5 instant coffee 速溶咖啡
Unit 8 Mainly revision
                Four plants

Corn is native to the Americans. It grew wild from eastern North America almost to the tip of South America. Indians started planting it in gardens at least 5,000 years ago. They even raised popcorn. Some Indians ground their corn into flour and made corn bread. Others made very flat corn pancakes.
  Columbus took corn to Europe, and from there it spread to other continents.
  Today corn is a popular and important food in the Americas. However, farmers use most of it to feed cattle, pigs, and chickens. Soft drinks are sweetened with corn sugar. People use corn oil for cooking. Corn is also used to make paper and industrial alcohol.

Coffee is the favorite hot drink in almost all countries. A “coffee break” is an important part of life in the United States.
  An old story says that coffee was first discovered in Ethiopia. Men taking care of their sheep noticed that the sheep stayed awake all night when they ate coffee beans and leaves.
  Coffee was first used as a food, then a kind of wine and then medicine. It became a drink about 700 years ago.
  People took coffee to Arabia in the thirteenth century. From there it went to Turkey, Europe and the Americas.
  In 1963 the United Nations helped organize an International Coffee Agreement. Countries that export coffee agree on the price. This agreement helps Brazil and the other exporting countries get a fair price.

Sugar cane is a kind of grass. It is a relative of corn and bamboo. No one has ever found a wild sugar plant, so no one is sure where the plant came from. Scientists think it probably came from Southeast Asia. Farmers were raising sugar cane in India by 300 B.C. It reached China before the first century B.C. and also moved slowly west to Persia. When the Arabs won a war against Persia, they introduced sugar throughout the Middle East, Sicily, and Spain. Columbus took it to the New World.

Peanuts are also called groundnuts because they grow underground. A peanut is not really a nut. It is a relative of beans and peas.
  The peanut is a native of tropical South America. Wild peanut plants still grow there. Farmers raised peanuts at least 2,000 years before Columbus went to the America.
  The Portuguese took peanuts to Europe and Africa, and the African slaves took them to North America.
  Today peanuts are raised in warm areas all over the world. In West Africa, the peanut is an important food. In most countries peanuts are used for oil. However, in the United States they are used for candy and peanut butter and to feed animals.

         Why diets differ around the world
The kinds of food that people eat vary from one country to another and even within countries. In some countries, for example, the people eat much meat. In some other countries, meat is served only on special occasions. People who are vegetarians eat no meat at all. Many people like certain foods that other people find very unappetizing. For example, the Chinese use the nests of birds called swifts to make bird-nest soup. The birds build the nests of their saliva. The people of Spain enjoy fried baby eels. People in many countries consider frog legs to be a treat.
  People of various cultures also prepare foods differently. In many cases, the fuel resources and cooking equipment available determine how foods are prepared. Thus, some people cook foods over an open fire. Others may use a microwave oven. Still others may eat most of their foods raw. Some people add fiery spice to their dishes. Others prefer little seasoning. Some people eat only natural, or unprocessed foods. Others eat foods that have been highly processed.
  Diets differ for a number of reasons, including geographic reasons, economic reasons, religious reasons, and customs. But differences in diet are not as great as they once were. The growth of tourism and the development of modern transportation and communication systems have led to an exchange of foods and eating habits among people throughout the world.

             Diet Customs
Customs influence what people eat and how they prepare, serve, and eat foods. Many countries and regions have traditional dishes, most of which are based on locally produced foods. In many cases, the dishes of various cultures include the same basic ingredients. But different seasonings and cooking methods give the dish a special regional or national flavor. In the United States, for example, people enjoy such distinctively different chicken dishes as Southern-fried chicken, Louisiana chicken Creole, and Texas-style barbecued chicken.
  Many people consider France to be the world center of fine foods and cookery. French chefs are especially known for their elaborate dishes with rich sauces and for their fancy pastries. Perhaps the most famous English dish is roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, a batter pudding baked in beef juice. Italy is known for its spaghetti, macaroni, and other pastas and for its sauces made with tomatoes, garlic, and olive oil. Sausages, potatoes, cabbages, and beer are common in the German diet. Scandinavians enjoy herring and other fish. They also are noted for their excellent cheeses and many kinds of bread, which range from thin, crisp sheets to dark, heavy loaves.
  The Spanish and Portuguese also eat much fish. Their use of onions and garlic for seasoning influenced cookery in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and other parts of Latin America that they colonized. Caribbean cooking features such local fruits and vegetables as plantains (a kind of banana) and cassava (a starchy root). Mexican food is noted for its use of a variety of peppers. Mexicans enjoy flat corn-meal bread called tortillas. They may eat the tortillas plain or wrapped around bits of cheese, meat, and beans to form tacos.
  The main food of many people in the Middle East is pita bread, a flat bread made from wheat. For celebrations, people of the region often prepare shish kebab. This dish consists of cubes of lamb, tomatoes, peppers, and onions coasted on a spike like skewer. Rice is the main dish of many people in Japan, southern China, India, and Southeast Asia. Japanese meals commonly include vegetables, tofu (soybean curd), and raw or cooked fish. Chinese cookery, which many people consider among the finest in the world, varies greatly by geographical region. Cooks in southern China stir-fry chopped vegetables and meat, which they serve with a mild sauce and rice. In northern regions, people enjoy spicy fried foods served with noodles. Indians and many Southeast Asians enjoy curry. This stew like dish is made of eggs, fish, meat, or vegetables and cooked in a spicy sauce.
  Corn, rice, and other grains are the basic foods of many people in Africa. In Nigeria, food is often cooked in palm oil, and it may be sharply seasoned with red peppers. The people of Zaire serve corn and rice as thick porridge. If they can afford it, they add meat or fish to the porridge. Many Ethiopians enjoy raw meat in a red pepper sauce.
  In some cultures, the way food is served is almost as important as how it is prepared. For example, French and Japanese chefs carefully arrange food to make each dish look beautiful. In Sweden, is a popular way to serve guests. consists of a long table set with a dazzling selection of bread, cheeses, fish, salads, and hot and cold meats.
  Customs also can affect the times when people eat. In most western cultures, for example, people commonly eat three meals a day- breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Dinner, the main meal, is usually eaten in the evening. In rural areas, however, many families eat dinner about noon and have a light supper in the evening. The British add a light, extra meal called tea late in the afternoon. At this meal, they serve strong tea and such foods as biscuits, cakes, or sandwiches.
  In most western cultures, people eat from individual plates and use knives, forks, and spoons. In China and Japan, the people use chopsticks. In many societies, the people eat from a common serving dish and use few utensils. Some people scoop up their food with bread or with their fingers. For example, some Hawaiian islanders use their fingers to scoop up poi, a paste like food made from the tropical taro plant.

Unit 8 Mainly revision


1. 词法
  (1) offer
   [说明]offer 是及物动词,(主动)提出做某事。常用于offer sb. sth.或
      offer to do sth.的结构中。翻译时比较灵活。
   例如:Sitting by my side, he offered me a cigar.
      Seeing this, the policeman offered help.
      Many people offered to be volunteers for the Olympic Games.
  (2) discover
   [说明] discover是及物动词,作“发现”,“查明真相”解。
   例如:A new star has just been discovered recently.
      Have you discovered who made the phone call?
  (3) prepare
   [说明] prepare 是及物动词,作“准备”,“调制” 解。
   例如:Have you prepared your lesson?
      When I saw her last year, she was busy preparing a big exhibition of Dunhuang.
      Mum is preparing dinner in the kitchen.
  (4) a lot
   [说明] a lot 作“许多”解, 相当于一个副词的作用, 在句中作状语。
   例如:Can't you keep quiet for a while? You have talked a lot tonight.
      Thanks a lot.
  (5) in different ways
   例如:We are trying to find a way of solving the problem.
      Can you work out the problem in some other way?
   此外,还可以说in this way 用这种方法,on the way to… 在去……的路上;
   by the way 顺便说一下;lose one's way 迷路;come this way 朝这边走
   例如:There will be a film “Gone with the wind” this evening. By the way, have you read
      the novel?
      It is easy to lose one's way in the forest.
  (6) just now
   [说明]just now这里作“刚才”, “方才” 解。句子用过去时。
   例如:Paul telephoned just now.
      I saw Peter come in just now.
   1. I was lucky. I didn't expect that they could ____ me this job.
     A. send   B. pay   C. get   D. offer
   2. He used to sell newspapers after school. ____ he earned some money.
     A. On the way  B. By the way  C. In this way  D. In the same way
   3. I'm very busy today. I have to ____ a speech for tomorrow.
     A. prepare   B. make   C. listen to   D. hear
   4. Do you know when Christopher Columbus ____ America?
     A. invented   B. made   C. see   D. discovered
   5. The eggs____ I bought ____ yesterday are very fresh.
     A. that, it   B. which, them   C./ , them   D. / , /

2. 语法句法
  (1) Corn is made into powder. 把玉米磨成粉。
   [说明] be made into 意思是把……制成……。
   例如:Here grapes are made into wine.
      First cocoons are made into silk.
  (1) It is said that Christopher Columbus discovered America.
   [说明] It is said that … 据说……, 相当于people say that…。
   例如:It is said that a big earthquake hit Seattle last week.
   It is said that everything in that shop is on sale.
   1. When they ____ at the station, the train had already left.
     A. got   B. reached   C. arrived   D. went
   2. We will start the meeting as soon as the professor _____.
     A. arrive   B. arrived   C. will arrive   D. arrives
   3. The furniture is not made ____ wood, but ____ plastic.
     A. of, of   B. from, from   C. into, into   D. from, of
   4. Rubbish can be made ____ something useful.
     A. of B. into C. from D. up of
   5. ____ is said that the composer died of heart disease.
     A. Which B. That C. It D.What 

Unit 8 Mainly revision


1. 词法
   (1) offer有时表示 “出售” 或“出价”。
    例如:He offered the bicycle for 20 pounds, which was refused.
       How much did they offer for the right to publish the book?
   (2) discover 还用于以下结构中:discover sb. doing“发现某人在做某事”;
    例如:Sometimes we discover people stealing books in the library.
   (3) prepare 与for 连用,表示“为……做好准备”;
    例如:We are doing exercise every day to prepare for the long journey.
       be prepared 表示“思想上有准备”。
    例如:The enemy may come back soon. You must be well prepared.
    (4) a lot 与a lot of
      a lot of 相当于一个形容词的作用。用在名词前。既可以修饰可数名词, 也可以修饰不可数名词。
     例如: There are a lot of people waiting outside.
        Look! What a lot of smoke!
  [ 练习题]
    1. How much did they ____ you for the house?
      A. give   B. buy   C. offer   D. send
    2. Don't let him drink any more. He has drunk ____.
      A. more   B. a lot   C. a lot of   D. too many
    3. The students have been busy ____ their exams these days.
      A. preparing   B. preparing for   C. to prepare   D. to prepare for
    4. There is going to be a test next week. You must get ____.
      A. prepare   B. prepared   C. preparing   D. to prepare
    5. --- How did you feel about it?
      --- I got ____ at this.
      A. anger   B. angry   C. excite   D. surprise

2. 语法句法
   (1) be made into是将某材料制成……成品。be made与其它介词连用还可表示其它的意思。
      be made of / from 由……制成; be made up of 由……组成
      例如: The jam is made from apple.
       Clouds are made up of small drops of water.
       This bag is made of real leather.
   (2) It is said that 这一结构还可以用sth. is said to be…来表示。
      例如:She is said to be much better.
       (代替It is said that she is much better.)
       He is said to have broken the window.
       (代替It is said that he broke the window.)
      例如:It is hoped / expected that…
        It is reported that …
        It is believed that …
        It is thought that …
      例如: It is expected that the new railway will be completed this year.
    1. More and more people like wearing clothes that are ____ cotton.
     A. made of   B. made from   C. made into   D. made up of
    2. Life there ____ to be rather difficult.
     A. is saying   B. says   C. is said   D. said
    3. Have some fruit. ____ yourself.
     A. Take   B. Have   C. Eat   D. Help
    4. By the end of last year we ____ more than 3,000 trees in this area.
     A. have planted   B. planted   C. had planted   D. would plant
    5. His letter ____ me only yesterday.
     A. arrived   B. got   C. received   D. reached 

Unit 8 Mainly revision
   网站简介:介绍Columbus 的航海经历的一篇文章。

(2) 网站名称:The Columbus Navigation Homepage

   网站简介: 餐饮综合网站,介绍了一些各国的菜谱。

(4) 网站名称:食品在线

(5) 网站名称:世界中餐网

(6) 网站名称:西域采风