TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORSGRADE EIGHT TIME LIMIT:195MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSIONSECTION A MINI-LECTUREIn this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini-lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
Now listen to the mini-lecture.
Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is(are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes.
People who usually make us feel comfortable in conversations are good talkers. And they have something in common, i.e. skills to put people at ease.
1.Skill to ask questions
1) be aware of the human nature: readiness to answer others'
questions regardless of (1)
2) start a conversation with some personal but unharmful
e.g. questions about one's (2)
questions about one's activities in the (3)
3) be able to spot signals for further talk
2.Skill to (4) for answers
1) don't shift from subject to subject
— sticking to the same subject: (5) in conversation
2) listen to (6) of voice
— If people sound unenthusiastic, then change subject.
3) use eyes and ears
— steady your gaze while listening
3.Skill to laugh
Effects of laughter:
— help start (8)
4.Skill to part
1) importance: open up possibilities for future friendship or
— men: a smile, a (9)
— women: same as (10) now
— how to express pleasure in meeting someone
(1) personality / shyness
(2) first / former / previous job
(5) signs of interest / attention / concentration / attentiveness
(7) ease people's discomfort / nervousness / uneasiness / tension / anxiety
(8) conversation / communication / talk
(10) men / men's
Good morning, today's lecture will focus on how to make people feel at ease in conversations. I guess all of you sitting here can recall certain people who just seem to make you feel comfortable when they're around. You spend an hour with them and feel as if you've known them half your life. These people who have that certain something that makes us feel comfortable have something in common. And once we know what that is, we can go about getting some of that something for ourselves.
How is it done? Here are some of the skills that good talkers have. If you follow the skills, they will help you put people at their ease, make them feel secure and comfortable, and turn acquaintances into friends.
First of all, good talkers ask questions. Almost anyone, no matter how shy, will answer a question. In fact, according to my observation, very shy persons are often more willing to answer questions than extroverts. They are more concerned that someone will think them impolite if they don't respond to the questions. So, most skillful conversationalists recommend starting with a question that is personal but not harmful. For example, once a famous American TV presenter got a long and fascinating interview from a notoriously private billionaire by asking him about his first job. Another example, one prominent woman executive confesses that "at business lunches, I always ask people what they did that morning. It's a dull question, but it gets things going." From there you can move on to other matters — sometimes to really personal questions. Moreover, how your respondent answers will let you know how far you can go. A few simple catchwords like "Really?" "Yes?" are clear invitations to continue talking.
Second, once good talkers have asked questions, they listen for answers. This point seems obvious, but it isn't in fact. Making people feel comfortable isn't simply a matter of making idle conversation. Your questions have a point. You're really asking, "What sort of person are you?" And to find out, you have to really listen.
There are at least three components of real listening. For one thing, real listening means not changing the subject. If someone sticks to one topic, you can assume that he or she is really interested in it. Another component of real listening is listening not just to words but to tones of voice. I once mentioned D.H. Lawrence to a friend. To my astonishment, she launched into an academic discussion of the imagery in Lawrence's works. Midway through, I listened to her voice. It was, to put it mildly, unanimated, and it seemed obvious that the imagery monologue was intended solely for my benefit. And I quickly changed the subject. And last, real listening means using your eyes as well as your ears. When your gaze wanders, it makes people think they're boring you, or what they are saying is not interesting. Of course, you don't have to stare or glare at them; simply looking attentive will make most people think that you think they're fascinating.
Next, good talkers are not afraid to laugh. If you think of all the people you know who make you feel comfortable, you may notice that all of them laugh a lot. Laughter is not only warming and friendly, it's also a good way to ease other people's discomfort. I have a friend whom I enjoy watching at gatherings of people who do not know each other well. The first few minutes of talk are a bit uneasy and hesitant, for the people involved do not yet have a sense of each other. Invariably, a light comment or joke is made and my friend's easy laugher appears like sunshine in the conversation. There is always then a visible softening that takes place; other people smile and loosen in response to her laughter, and the conversation goes on with more warmth and ease.
Finally, good talkers are ones who cement a parting, that is, they know how to make use of parting as a way to leave a deep impression on others. Last impressions are just as important as first impressions in determining how a new acquaintance will remember you. People who make others really feel comfortable take advantage of that parting moment to "close the deal". Men have had it easier; they have done it with a smile and a good, firm handshake. What about women then? Over the last several years, women have started to take over that custom as well, between themselves or with men. If you're saying good-bye, you may want to give him or her a second, extra hand squeeze. It's a way to say, "I've really enjoyed meeting you." But it's not all done with body language. If you've enjoyed being with someone, if you want to see that person again, don't keep it a secret. Let people know how you feel, and they may walk away feeling as if they've known you half their life.
OK, just to sum up, today we've talked about four ways to make people feel at ease in conversations. These skills are important in keeping conversations going and in forming friendships later on. Of course, these skills are by no means the only ones we can use; the list is much longer. I hope, you will use these four skills and discover more on your own in conversations with other people.
In Section B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet.
SECTION B INTERVIEW / CONVERSATION
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview with an architect. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following questions.
Now listen to the interview.
1. The interviewee's first job was with
A. a newspaper.
B. the government.
C. a construction firm.
D. a private company.
TIP：本题考查细节理解。被访者一开始便讲到I started with the government.
2. The interviewee is not self-employed mainly because
A. his wife likes him to work for a firm.
B. he prefers working for the government.
C. self-employed work is very demanding.
D. self-employed work is sometimes insecure.
TIP：本题考查理解加总结的能力。被访者在回答And what made you leave the public sector?时顺便提到不想self-employed的原因；虽然被访者在陈述中并未用到insecure这个词，但其含义就是insecure。
3. To study architecture in a university one must
A. be interested in arts.
B. study pure science first.
C. get good exam results.
D. be good at drawing.
TIP：在回答Now what qualifications does one have to have to become an architect?这一问题时，被访者说到you have to pass exams, usually three A-levels with good results. 该题其他选择都不是主要原因。
4. On the subject of drawing the interviewee says that
A. technically speaking artists draw very well.
B. an artist's drawing differs little from an architect's.
C. precision is a vital skill for the architect.
D. architects must be natural artists.
TIP：被访者在两处谈到precision的重要性：So I'd say that accuracy of the drawings is what we aim at, what's important.和An architect's work is good in as much as the construction is built precisely as the theory requires. 因此，同一信息可能在几处出现，从而对考生理解提供帮助。
5. The interviewee says that the job of an architect is
A. more theoretical than practical.
B. to produce sturdy, well-designed buildings.
C. more practical than theoretical.
D. to produce attractive, interesting buildings.
A: So, you're an architect?
A: Do you work for a public or private organization, or are you self-employed, that is, working on your own?
B: I'm working for a private design and construction company.
A: How did you start your career?
B: I started with the government.
A: Oh, did you? What made you decide to work for the government?
B: Well, it was a matter of chance really. I saw an advertisement for a vacant position in a newspaper, and I thought "Why don't you try it?". In fact, I have no preferences to where I work, public or private.
A: And do you still have this idea, or ...
B: More or less, yes, although I'm now working for a private firm, I worked for the government for about three years. It was alright. Of course there's the bureaucracy one has to put up with, but it's not that bad, if you don't mind bureaucratic wheels turning slowly, and things not being as efficient.
A: Ah-ah. And what made you leave the public sector?
B: Money mainly. You see, I got married, and my wife doesn't work, and we wanted to start a family right away. So we thought it might be better off if I moved to the private sector. This is why it's hard for me to be self-employed because self employed work has the disadvantage that there may be time, or a period of time when you're unemployed.
A: I see, so did you join this company straight away or ...
B: No, I worked for ..., in a couple of private firms before I came to this one.
A: Hmm, hmm. Now what qualifications does one have to have to become an architect?
B: Well, you've got to have a degree in architecture. That means before you apply to study architecture in any university, you have to pass exams, usually three A-levels with good results. Also you generally have to study sciences at school rather than arts ... as the basis for the subject to be studied at university level, although when you really get down to it, the subject involves some aspects of arts too. Then you need between six and seven years to work through, by the end of which you usually sit for the final examination.
A: So you mean to take up architecture, one has to have a scientific background?
B: Well, yes, mainly scientific, but it helps if you have some general arts background too. You know, architecture is not a pure science.
A: Now, if one wants to take up architecture, one has got to be able to draw? Is that really true?
B: Well, it is true that the work of an architect involves a lot of drawing, and to be an architect you must be able to draw. But this doesn't mean that if you can't at present draw, you won't have the opportunity to be an architect, because you can be taught to draw. In fact drawing in architecture is different from drawing in art. An artist's drawing must be good in the sense that it gives a certain impression in the mind of the viewer, in fact some famous artists can't draw very well at all, at least not from a technical point of view. On the other hand, an architect's drawing must be accurate. So I'd say that accuracy of the drawings is what we aim at, what's important.
A: Now what qualities do you think make a good architect, apart from being accurate in his drawings?
B: Well, I'm not sure if I can generalise about that. You see architecture is a mixture of theory and practice. So I suppose a good architect should be good at both. An architect's work is good in as much as the construction is built precisely as the theory requires, so that it doesn't collapse or can't be used after a period of time because it's dangerous. I don't mean a well-built construction will last for ever, but it's predictable that if the building is constructed in a certain way, or with certain materials, we can say how long it will last, provided that there's no other factor.
A: Such as?
B: Er, for example, an earthquake, or if the ground level sinks which may destroy it. So that's one part of being a good architect-to design a construction which is attractive and will last a long time.
A: Right, so, that's the theory side. Now what about the practical aspect?
B: Yes, the practical side concerns I'd say, the use of the structure you design. If you design a house, the people who live in it later on, must be happy living in it. Er, a college student shouldn't think to himself oh, I'd rather be study.., I'd rather study in the library, my bedroom's too cold because the ceiling seems to be too high, and the windows too big. Or say, when somebody's cooking in the kitchen, the smell of the food shouldn't disturb somebody who's still in bed. The bathroom should be situated for everyone's convenience, but while it's being used the noise shouldn't disturb anyone. So you see these practical things which give you comfort apart from serving the purpose of the construction whatever it may be, a school, a hospital, a hotel and so on ...
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Questions 6 and 7 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the two questions.
Now listen to the news.
6. The main function of the proposed Thorpe facility is to produce
A. weapon-grade material.
B. nuclear fuel.
D. spent fuel.
TIP：新闻的第一句即讲明Thorpe facility的功能是加工spent fuel，生产plutonium。本题题干的关键词是produce，因此答案只能是C。
7. On the issue of plutonium, the US feels
A. satisfied with the current civilian use of the element.
B. the destruction of nuclear arms surpasses civilian production.
C. content to export its own spent nuclear fuel.
D. the current levels of production should be decreased.
The Thorpe facility in northwest England would reprocess spent nuclear fuel and its ten years of operation could produce 60 tons of plutonium. Expertise would be needed to convert the plutonium into weapon-grade material. And that's in any case the International Atomic Energy Agency would ensure that none went astray. But there is great opposition in the United States to further production of plutonium, even for civilian uses. The Defense Department opposed the export of spent fuel to reprocessing plants in France, saying this would be an extremely damaging signal at a time when the United States wanted to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation. An independent report for the Pentagon says more plutonium would be produced from civilian programmes such as Thorpe than from the dismantling of nuclear weapons.
Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news items, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the three questions.
Now listen to the news.
8. Economic countries like Japan may face fuel shortage mainly because
A. they cannot have sufficient oil production.
B. they don't have substantial oil production.
C. India has tripled its oil consumption.
D. India has dominated the oil import.
TIP：听懂as none has any meaningful domestic production to speak of这一状语从句即可回答正确。
9. Asia's oil needs
A. are greater than its supply.
B. are less than its supply.
C. will not overtake North America within five years.
D. will not overtake any other country in the world.
10. Oil prices are likely to fluctuate because of
A. the economic boom in many countries.
B. the refusal of many countries to export oil.
C. the embargo against Iraqi oil exports.
D. competition among exporting countries.
Indonesia is not the only country in Asia growing faster than it can find the fuel to keep its industrial engines at full throttle. Japan and South Korea long have been oil importers as none has any meaningful domestic production to speak of. And despite promising signs that India will triple its oil production by 2015, domestic demand — and imports — during the same period are likely to more than double, ensuring that the country remains an oil importer. Asia is already the world's second largest oil consumer. The region drinks up 16.6 million barrels per day, compared with 16.9 million barrels in North America. And if the current trends continue, Asia will overtake North America as the world's largest oil consumer possibly within five years. And as economic growth in these countries speeds ahead, the gap between supply and demand will only grow wider. Asia now accounts for about 25% of the world's oil demand but just 10% of its supply. That leaves the question of price rises, which could have an impact on the region's economic expansion. Asia is the most vulnerable of all regions to higher oil prices. Indeed, in April alone, prices for widely traded grades of crude increased 10-15% at a time of increased market volatility. The continuing embargo against Iraqi exports means that prices are likely to continue fluctuating widely for at least the next few months.
PART II READING COMPREHENSIONIn this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet.
Cooperative competition. Competitive cooperation. Confused? Airline alliances have travellers scratching their heads over what's going on in the skies. Some folks view alliances as a blessing to travellers, offering seamless travel, reduced fares and enhanced frequent-flyer benefits. Others see a conspiracy of big businesses, causing decreased competition, increased fares and fewer choices. Whatever your opinion, there's no escaping airline alliances: the marketing hype is unrelenting, with each of the two mega-groupings, Oneworld and Star Alliance, promoting itself as the best choice for all travellers. And, even if you turn away from their ads, chances are they will figure in any of your travel plans. By the end of the year, Oneworld and Star Alliance will between them control more than 40% of the traffic in the sky. Some pundits predict that figure will be more like 75% in 10 years.
But why, after years of often ferocious competition, have airlines decided to band together? Let's just say the timing is mutually convenient. North American airlines, having exhausted all means of earning customer loyalty at home, have been looking for ways to reach out to foreign flyers. Asian carriers are still hurting from the region-wide economic downturn that began two years ago — just when some of the airlines were taking delivery of new aircraft. Alliances also allow carriers to cut costs and increase profits by pooling manpower resources on the ground (rather than each airline maintaining its own ground crew) and code-sharing — the practice of two partners selling tickets and operating only one aircraft.
So alliances are terrific for airlines — but are they good for the passenger? Absolutely, say the airlines: think of the lounges, the joint FFP (frequent flyer programme) benefits, the round-the-world fares, and the global service networks. Then there's the promise of "seamless" travel: the ability to, say, travel from Singapore to Rome to New York to Rio de Janiero, all on one ticket, without having to wait hours for connections or worry about your bags. Sounds utopian? Peter Buecking, Cathay Pacific's director of sales and marketing, thinks that seamless travel is still evolving. "It's fair to say that these links are only in their infancy. The key to seamlessness rests in infrastructure and information sharing. We're working on this." Henry Ma, spokesperson for Star Alliance in Hong Kong, lists some of the other benefits for consumers:"Global travellers have an easier time making connections and planning their itineraries." Ma claims alliances also assure passengers consistent service standards.
Critics of alliances say the much-touted benefits to the consumer are mostly pie in the sky, that alliances are all about reducing costs for the airlines, rationalizing services and running joint marketing programmes. Jeff Blyskal, associate editor of Consumer Reports magazine, says the promotional ballyhoo over alliances is much ado about nothing. "I don't see much of a gain for consumers: alliances are just a marketing gimmick. And as far as seamless travel goes, I'll believe it when I see it. Most airlines can't even get their own connections under control, let alone coordinate with another airline."
Blyskal believes alliances will ultimately result in decreased flight choices and increased costs for consumers. Instead of two airlines competing and each operating a flight on the same route at 70% capacity, the allied pair will share the route and run one full flight. Since fewer seats will be available, passengers will be obliged to pay more for tickets.
The truth about alliances and their merits probably lies somewhere between the travel utopia presented by the players and the evil empires portrayed by their critics. And how much they affect you depends on what kind of traveller you are.
Those who've already made the elite grade in the FFP of a major airline stand to benefit the most when it joins an alliance: then they enjoy the FFP perks and advantages on any and all of the member carriers. For example, if you're a Marco Polo Club "gold" member of Cathay Pacific's Asia Miles FFP, you will automatically be treated as a valuable customer by all members of Oneworld, of which Cathay Pacific is a member — even if you've never flown with them before.
For those who haven't made the top grade in any FFP, alliances might be a way of simplifying the earning of frequent flyer miles. For example, I belong to United Airline's Mileage Plus and generally fly less than 25,000 miles a year. But I earn miles with every flight I take on Star Alliance member — All Nippon Airways and Thai Airways.
If you fly less than I do, you might be smarter to stay out of the FFP game altogether. Hunt for bargains when booking flights and you might be able to save enough to take that extra trip anyway. The only real benefit infrequent flyers can draw from an alliance is an inexpensive round-the-world fare.
The bottom line: for all the marketing hype, alliances aren't all things to all people — but everybody can get some benefit out of them.
11. Which is the best word to describe air travellers' reaction to airline alliances?
TIP：本题问下述哪个词最能表达旅客对航空公司结盟的反响。文章开端的几个句子即能反映出旅客的态度，如Confused? ... scratching their heads over what's going on in the skies.
12. According to the passage, setting up airline alliances will chiefly benefit
A. North American airlines and their domestic travellers.
B. North American airlines and their foreign counterparts.
C. Asian airlines and their foreign travellers.
D. Asian airlines and their domestic travellers.
13. Which of the following is NOT a perceived advantage of alliances?
A. Baggage allowance.
B. Passenger comfort.
14. One disadvantage of alliances foreseen by the critics is that air travel may be more expensive as a result of
A. less convenience.
B. higher operation costs.
C. less competition.
D. more joint marketing.
TIP：第五段讲了结盟后可能会带来的问题，比如decreased flight choices and increased costs for consumers。因此，C项是正确答案。
15. According to the passage, which of the following categories of travellers will gain most from airline alliances?
A. Travellers who fly frequently economy class.
B. Travellers who fly frequently business class.
C. Travellers who fly occasionally during holidays.
D. Travellers who fly economy class once in a while.
Despite Denmark's manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they are to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, "Denmark is a great country." You're supposed to figure this out for yourself.
It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out life's inequalities, and there is plenty of money for schools, day care, retraining programmes, job seminars — Danes love seminars: three days at a study centre hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs — there is no Danish Academy to defend against it — old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the saying goes, "Few have too much and fewer have too little," and a foreigner is struck by the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr and Mrs. It's a nation of recyclers — about 55% of Danish garbage gets made into something new — and no nuclear power plants. It's a nation of tireless planners. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general.
Such a nation of overachievers — a brochure from the Ministry of Business and Industry says, "Denmark is one of the world's cleanest and most organized countries, with virtually no pollution, crime, or poverty. Denmark is the most corruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere." So, of course, one's heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings ("Foreigners Out of Denmark!"), broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slumped in the park.
Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line: town here, country there. It is not a nation of jaywalkers. People stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if it's 2 a.m. and there's not a car in sight. However, Danes don't think of themselves as a waiting-at-2-a.m.-for-the-green-light people — that's how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is (though one should not say it) that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well maintained.
The orderliness of the society doesn't mean that Danish lives are less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society cannot exempt its members from the hazards of life.
But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn't feel bad for taking what you're entitled to, you're as good as anyone else. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your job, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.
16. The author thinks that Danes adopt a ______ attitude towards their country.
TIP：本题问丹麦人对国家的态度如何。答案可在本文的第一段中找到。该段提到“... they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, 'Demark is a great country.'”
17. Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the passage?
A. Fondness of foreign culture.
B. Equality in society.
C. Linguistic tolerance.
D. Persistent planning.
TIP：本题问以下四选项中哪一个不是丹麦人的特点。B项是丹麦人的特点之一，答案可以在第二段中找到：“It is the land where, as the saying goes, 'Few have too much and fewer have too little,'...”C项也可在第二段中找到：“... and despite all the English that Danish absorbs — there is no Danish Academy to defend against it — ...”。D项所指的特点也包括在第二段中：“It's a nation of tireless planners. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general.”相比之下，只有A项未提及。事实上第三段中提到光头帮成员在建筑物上涂写“外国人滚出丹麦!”。
18. The author's reaction to the statement by the Ministry of Business and Industry is
TIP：本题问作者如何看待工商部的说法。A项说不赞同，B项为赞同，C项是态度暧昧，D项为持怀疑态度。答案可以在第三段的最后一句话中：“So, of course, one's heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze:...”。之后作者举的一些例子足以说明他持怀疑的态度。
19. According to the passage, Danish orderliness
A. sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes.
B. spares Danes social troubles besetting other peoples.
C. is considered economically essential to the country.
D. prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles.
TIP：答案可以在文章的第四段中找到。该段中提到：“Orderliness is a main selling point.”，随后举例说明了丹麦人处事有条不紊的特点对国家经济发展的贡献。
20. At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that
A. Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits.
B. Danes take for granted what is given to them.
C. the open system helps to tide the country over.
D. orderliness has alleviated unemployment.
TIP：A、B、C选项的答案均可在最后两段内找到。比如： “The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone”； “... there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with”； “... and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.”只有D项未被提及。
For much of the world, the death of Richard Nixon was the end of a complex public life. But researchers who study bereavement wondered if it didn't also signify the end of a private grief. Had the former president merely run his allotted fourscore and one, or had he fallen victim to a pattern that seems to afflict longtime married couples: one spouse quickly following the other to the grave?
Pat, Nixon's wife of 53 years, died last June after a long illness. No one knows for sure whether her death contributed to his. After all, he was elderly and had a history of serious heart disease. Researchers have long observed that the death of a spouse, particularly a wife, is sometimes followed by the untimely death of the grieving survivor. Historian Will Durant died 13 days after his wife and collaborator, Ariel; Buckminster Fuller and his wife died just 36 hours apart. Is this more than coincidence?
"Part of the story, I suspect, is that we men are so used to ladies feeding us and taking care of us," says Knud Helsing, an epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, "that when we lose a wife we go to pieces. We don't know how to take care of ourselves." In one of several studies Helsing has conducted on bereavement, he found that widowed men had higher mortality rates than married men in every age group. But, he found that widowers who remarried enjoyed the same lower mortality rate as men who'd never been widowed.
Women's health and resilience may also suffer after the loss of a spouse. In a 1987 study of widows, researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles, and UC, San Diego, found that they had a dramatic decline in levels of important immunesystem cells that fight off disease. Earlier studies showed reduced immunity in widowers.
For both men and women, the stress of losing a spouse can have a profound effect. "All sorts of potentially harmful medical problems can be worsened," says Gerald Davison, professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. People with high blood pressure, for example, may see it rise. In Nixon's case, Davison speculates, "the stroke, although not caused directly by the stress, was probably hastened by it." Depression can affect the surviving spouse's will to live; suicide is elevated in the bereaved, along with accidents not involving cars.
Involvement in life helps prolong it. Mortality, says Duke University psychiatrist Daniel Blazer, is higher in older people without a good social-support-system, who don't feel they're part of a group or a family, that they "fit in" somewhere. And that's a more common problem for men, who tend not to have as many close friendships as women. The sudden absence of routines can also be a health hazard, says Blazer. "A person who loses a spouse shows deterioration in normal habits like sleeping and eating," he says. "They don't have that other person to orient them, like when do you go to bed, when do you wake up, when do you eat, when do you take your medication, when do you go out to take a walk? Your pattern is no longer locked into someone else's pattern, so it deteriorates."
While earlier studies suggested that the first six months to a year — or even the first week — were times of higher mortality for the bereaved, some newer studies find no special vulnerability in this initial period. Most men and women, of course, do not die as a result of the loss of a spouse. And there are ways to improve the odds. A strong sense of separate identity and lack of over-dependency during the marriage are helpful. Adult sons and daughters, siblings and friends need to pay special attention to a newly widowed parent. They can make sure that he or she is socializing, getting proper nutrition and medical care, expressing emotion and, above all, feeling needed and appreciated.
21. According to researchers, Richard Nixon's death was
A. caused by his heart problems.
B. indirectly linked to his wife's death.
C. the inevitable result of old age.
D. an unexplainable accident.
TIP：尽管作者说：“No one knows for sure whether her death contributed to his”，但接下去他说：“Researchers have long observed that the death of a spouse, particularly a wife, is sometimes followed by the untimely death of the grieving survivor.”整篇文章主要在讨论丧偶是否会影响寿命，因此可以认为作者感觉尼克松的死在一定程度上与妻子的过世有关。
22. The researches reviewed in the passage suggest that
A. remarried men live healthier lives.
B. unmarried men have the longest life spans.
C. widowers have the shortest life spans.
D. widows are unaffected by their mates' death.
TIP：相关的内容在第三段：“... he found that widowed men had higher mortality rates than married men in every age group. But, he found that widowers who remarried enjoyed the same lower mortality rate as men who'd never been widowed.”意思是丧偶男子的死亡率在每个年龄组都比已婚的男子高，但如果丧偶男子再婚，他们的死亡率与其他从未丧偶男子的死亡率一样低。比较四个选项，C(丧偶者寿命最短)是正确答案。
23. One of the results of grief mentioned in the passage is
A. loss of friendships.
B. diminished socializing.
C. vulnerability to disease.
D. loss of appetite.
TIP：第四段中有相关信息：“... found that they had a dramatic decline in levels of important immune system cells that fight off disease. Earlier studies showed reduced immunity in widowers.”可见根据研究结果，丧偶者的免疫系统抵御疾病的能力下降，这样他们就很容易得病。其他选项的内容没有直接提到。
24. The passage states that while married couples can prepare for grieving by
A. being self-reliant.
B. evading intimacy.
C. developing habits.
D. avoiding independence.
TIP：文章认为男人十分依赖于他们的妻子：“... men are so used to ladies feeding us and taking care of us ... that when we lose a wife we go to pieces. We don't know how to take care of ourselves.”丧偶者失去了以往的相互依赖，变得“They don't have that other person to orient them, like when do you go to bed, when do you wake up, when do you eat, when do you take your medication, when do you go out to take a walk? Your pattern is no longer locked into someone else's pattern, so it deteriorates.”因此，文章认为如果人们能够自立，这种由悲痛带来的危险就会降低。
25. Helsing speculates that husbands suffer from the death of a spouse because they are
A. unprepared for independence.
B. incapable of cooking.
C. unwilling to talk.
D. dissatisfied with themselves.
A team of international researchers has found new evidence that an endangered subspecies of chimpanzee is the source of the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Experts said the finding could lead to new treatments for AIDS and contribute to the development of a vaccine against the disease.
The research team said the chimp — a subspecies known as Pan troglodytes native to west central Africa — carries a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is closely related to three strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. One of these strains, HIV-1, has caused the vast majority of the estimated 30 million HIV infections around the world.
The researchers are uncertain when the chimp virus, called SIVcpz (for simian immunodeficiency virus chimpanzee), first infected humans, although the oldest documented case of HIV has been linked to a Bantu man who died in Central Africa in 1959. But they said the virus, which does not appear to harm the chimps, was most likely transmitted to humans when hunters were exposed to chimp blood while killing and butchering the animals for food. Once transmitted to humans, the researchers believe the virus mutated into HIV-1.
Team leader Beatrice Hahn, an AIDS researcher at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, said the chimps have probably carried the virus for hundreds of thousands of years. Since humans have probably hunted the animals since prehistoric times, Hahn said the virus may have jumped to humans on many occasions, but was not transmitted widely among humans until the 20th century. Increased hunting of the chimpanzees, along with human migration to African cities and changing sexual mores, could help explain the recent epidemic, Hahn said.
Scientists had long suspected that a nonhuman primate was the source of HIV-1. Earlier studies suggested that the sooty mangabey monkey, a native of West Africa, was the likely source of HIV-2 — a rarer form of the AIDS virus that is transmitted less easily than HIV-1. However, only a few samples of SIV strains exist, making it difficult for researchers to confidently connect the strains to HIV-1.
As part of their effort to discover the source of HIV-1, the research team studied the four known samples of SIVcpz. They learned that three of the four samples came from chimps belonging to the subspecies P.t. troglodytes. The remaining sample came from another subspecies, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, which inhabits East Africa.
The team then compared the SIVcpz strains to each other and found that all three of the viruses from P.t. troglodytes were closely related, while the virus from P.t. schweinfurthii was genetically different. Next they compared the SIVcpz strains to the main subgroups of HIV-1, known as M, N, and O. Their comparisons showed that the P.t. troglodytes viruses strongly resembled all three HIV-1 subgroups.
Additional evidence that HIV-1 could be linked to P.t. troglodytes came when the researchers examined the chimps' natural habitat. The researchers quickly discovered that the chimps live primarily in the West African nations of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and the Republic of the Congo, the geographic region where HIV-1 was first identified.
Upon closer study, the researchers learned that the chimps were being killed in growing numbers for the so-called bushmeat trade, a trend assisted by the construction of new logging roads in once remote forests. The researchers said that continued hunting of the animals meant that many people are still likely to be exposed to SIVcpz, increasing the risk of additional cross-species transmissions.
Many AIDS researchers welcomed the team's finding, but said the new work had not proved the connection definitively. Most of the doubts centered on the difficulty of drawing conclusions from such a small number of SIVcpz samples. Because so few samples exist — all drawn from chimps in captivity — researchers do not know how prevalent the virus is among wild chimps, or how the virus is transmitted. Doubts are likely to persist until the course of the virus is studied in chimps in the wild.
Some health experts said the finding could have far-reaching implications for combating AIDS. Because SIVcpz does not cause the chimps to become ill, researchers believe that the animals' disease-fighting immune systems may have developed a defense against the virus. Since chimps are 98 percent genetically similar to humans, learning more about the chimps' immune systems could shed light on new ways to prevent and treat AIDS in humans. Discovering how the chimp's immune system controls the virus, for example, could help researchers develop a vaccine that generates a similar immunesystem response in humans.
Other experts noted that even if the finding does not help in the fight against AIDS, it provides strong evidence that dangerous viruses can be transmitted to humans from wild animals. In some cases, the viruses may be harmless to the host animals, but cause sickness and death when transmitted to humans. As people increasingly venture into remote animal habitats, some scientists believe there is a growing risk of new human exposures to previously unknown disease-causing microbes.
In the meantime, widespread slaughter of the chimps could make further study of P.t. troglodytes difficult. The wild chimp population, which exceeded 1 million animals in the early 20th century, is now believed to number fewer than 100,000. "We cannot afford to lose these animals, either from the animal's conservation point of view or a medical investigation standpoint," said Hahn. "It is quite possible that the chimpanzee, which has served as the source of HIV-1, also holds the clues to its successful control."
26. The significance of the finding is that
A. people now know the number of chimpanzees is much smaller than expected.
B. it may make it possible for scientists to discover new ways of treating AIDS.
C. it proves some deadly human diseases can also be transmitted to wild animals.
D. it will soon help the scientists develop a vaccine that prevents the AIDS virus.
27. According to Hahn, all the following increase the transmission of AIDS virus EXCEPT
A. hunting and killing more chimpanzees.
B. more champ hunters moving to cities.
C. people's changed sexual behaviour.
D. travelling to more African countries.
TIP：艾滋病毒大面积传染的原因在第四段中：“Increased hunting of the chimpanzees, along with human migration to African cities and changing sexual mores, could help explain the recent epidemic ...”，但其中没有D所说的内容，尽管艾滋病源于非洲。
28. Many AIDS experts are not completely satisfied with results of the study because
A. only a limited number of chimpanzees are used for sampling the virus.
B. it is now extremely difficult to find chimpanzees that carry the virus.
C. the samples collected are from two different subspecies of chimpanzees.
D. it does not provide reliable evidence of the link between SIV and HIV-1.
TIP：该题问许多科学家对研究成果不十分满意的原因，这内容可以在文章中部偏后一点找到： Most of the doubts centered on the difficulty of drawing conclusions from such a small number of SIVcpz samples. Because so few samples exist — all drawn from chimps in captivity — researchers do not know how prevalent the virus is among wild chimps, or how the virus is transmitted.从中可以看出，他们不满意主要是因为所采集的样本太少，而且都是来自于圈养的黑猩猩。文中未提到B；C不是原因；D不符合事实。因此，只有A相对正确。
29. Since chimpanzees are genetically very similar to humans,
A. chimpanzees are likely to suffer AIDS just like humans if they are infected.
B. it does not matter if human beings are infected with SIV rather than HIV-1.
C. we can use human vaccines to prevent chimpanzees from getting AIDS virus.
D. AIDS vaccines based on chimp's immune mechanism are possible to be made.
TIP：本题的前提是“由于黑猩猩与人类在遗传方面大多相似”，A说黑猩猩如果感染病毒，也会像人类一样患艾滋病。这不符合事实，因为文中说“... the virus, which does not appear to harm the chimps ...”B说如果人类感染SIV病毒而不是HIV-1病毒就不会得病。这不对，因为SIV在人体内会转化为HIV-1，最后使人得病。第三段最后一句“Once transmitted to humans, the researchers believe the virus mutated into HIV-1.”证实了这点。C说我们能用人的疫苗来防止黑猩猩的艾滋病，这是错的，因为首先人们还未开发出用于人类免得艾滋病的疫苗，另外，黑猩猩本身不会得艾滋病，也就用不上疫苗。D说根据黑猩猩的免疫机能进行艾滋病毒疫苗的开发是可能成功的，这符合该发现的重大意义。
30. The biggest worry that the researchers now have is
A. more and more wild chimpanzees are being slaughtered.
B. AIDS virus is difficult to be killed and controlled.
C. it is not easy to repair people's deficient immune systems.
D. many dangerous viruses are being transmitted to humans.
TIP：试题问现在研究者最大担忧是什么。A说是越来越多的黑猩猩在被屠杀。B说艾滋病毒很难杀除和控制。C说修补缺损的免疫系统很不容易。D说许多危险的病毒正在向人类传染。B、C也许是事实，但文中没有提到；有关D的内容，作者是说许多人走向丛林会增加动物病毒向人类传染的机会，也是事实，但不是研究者目前最为担心的。他们的担心在文章最后一段有说明：“... widespread slaughter of the chimps could make further study of P.t. troglodytes difficult ... We cannot afford to lose these animals, either from the animal's conservation point of view or a medical investigation standpoint ...”科学家担心黑猩猩的减少使对艾滋病毒的研究很难继续下去，而黑猩猩正是问题的关键：“It is quite possible that the chimpanzee ... also holds the clues to its successful control.”
PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGEThere are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question.
Mark your answers on your answer sheet.
31. _____ is recognized as the longest river in Britain.
A. The Thames River
B. The Amazon River
C. The Severn River
D. The Rhine River
32. The jury in the High Court of New Zealand is composed of _____ members.
33. It is _____ who declared the Hundred Years' War between England and France.
A. Edward Ⅲ
B. Henry Ⅲ
C. Edward Ⅱ
D. Henry Ⅳ
34. Britain was able to establish itself as a world leader in shipbuilding in the middle of
A. the 16th century.
B. the 17th century.
C. the 18th century.
D. the 19th century.
35. The settings of most novels by Hardy are found in ______, the fictional primitive rural region that is really the home place he both loves and hates.
36. The background of ______, a novel by Dickens, is set in the French Revolution.
A. Oliver Twist
B. A Tale of Two Cities
C. David Copperfield
D. Great Expectations
37. The Victorian Age, eminently represented by Dickens and Thackeray, was mostly regarded as an age of ______ in English literature.
A. epic prose
38. Which of the following does NOT belong to the Indo-European family?
39. The language phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form is called
40. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
A. Words and phrases are organized according to syntactic categories.
B. Lexical categories are commonly known as parts of speech.
C. Only major lexical categories are open categories.
D. Both major and minor lexical categories are open categories.
PART IV PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTIONProofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maxinum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
To correct these mistakes, you may need to change, delete or add a word. If you need to change a word, click the left mouse button to select the word，choose "change" on the menu and write the correct word in the blank. If you need to delete a word, click the left mouse button to select the word and choose "delete" on the menu. If you need to add a word, click the left mouse button to select the space in between the two words where you think there is a word missing, choose "add" on the menu and write the missing word in the blank. And you may use "cancel" on the menu to cancel the choice of the correction way you've just made.
In a competitive and fast-paced modern society, busy businessexecutives are so engrossing in their work that they hardly know(1) tion is on the business ladder, the more hours he spends on hiswork. With a view to gaining greater corporate standing or a big(2) pay rise, he, as a rule, far exceedsover the 40-hour working week. The additional stress and tension(3) as well as the shortage of suitable rest and recreation very often(4) have a disastrous effect on his health. Few such executives rea-lize that unless they learn how to relax, they will soon run of(5) steam before they get to the top of the executive ladder. A not-ed American authority on leisure has said that “The key to relax-ation to busy executives is to avoid the types of activities that are(6) part and parcel of their daily work and to devote themselves to-tally to have recreational pursuits for at least a part of each day,(7) even it is only for half an hour. Those(8) jobs require a great deal of contact with others can engage in ac-(9) tivities that are quiet and peaceful — far from the maddingcrowd, far from client and business associates.”(10) add
(1) executives are so engrossed in their work that they hardly know
(2) work. With a view to gaining greater corporate standing or a bigger
(3) the 40-hour working week. The additional stress and tension
(4) as well as the lack of suitable rest and recreation very often
(5) lize that unless they learn how to relax, they will soon run out of
(6) ation for executives is to avoid the types of activities that are
(7) tally to having recreational pursuits for at least a part of each day,
(8) even if it is only for half an hour. Those
(9) whose jobs require a great deal of contact with others can engage in ac-
(10) crowd, far from clients and business associates.”
TIP：(1) engrossing — 改成engrossed。这里必须用被动语态。(2) big — 改成bigger。or前面已经出现了比较级greater，为了使句式前后保持平衡，big也要用比较级。(3) over — 删去over。over在这里是多余的。(4) shortage — 改成lack。这里不是指“短缺”，而是指“不足”。(5) run ∧ of — 加入out。run out of 为一动词短语，意为“耗尽；用完”。(6) to busy — 改成for。for 在这里含有“对于”的意思。(7) have — 改成having，因为这里的to是介词。(8) even ∧ it — 加入if, 使之成为even if(即使)。(9) ∧ jobs — 加入whose，使其成为those的定语从句。(10) client — 改成clients。这里应为复数形式。
PART V TRANSLATIONSECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISHTranslate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
My supervisor was an Asian, a bad tempered heavy smoker and drinker. But he really appreciated industriousness and solid basics in Asian students, with particular understanding of their psychology. Therefore, among the students he had accepted to work in his laboratory, only one was from Germany, with the rest five all from Asia. He simply put up a bold notice on the door to the laboratory saying, “Every research assistant in this laboratory must work seven days per week, from 10am to 12pm. He must fully concentrate during the laboratory hours.” He was known all over the campus for his strictness and harshness, and during my stay there for three and a half years, only five out of the fourteen students he had admitted into his laboratory to work remained to finally graduate with doctorate.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESETranslate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
The thirty-second day out of Bombay began inauspiciously. In the morning a sea smashed one of the galley doors. We dashed in through lots of steam and found the cook very wet and indignant with the ship:"She's getting worse every day. She's trying to drown me in front of my own stove!” He was very angry. We pacified him, and the carpenter, though washed away twice from there, managed to repair the door. Through that accident our dinner was not ready till late, but it didn't matter in the end because Knowles, who went to fetch it, got knocked down by a sea and the dinner went over the side. The ship's captain, looking more hard and thin-lipped than ever, would not notice that the ship, asked to do too much, appeared to lose heart altogether for the first time since we knew her.
PART VI WRITING
While some people claim that a person's essential qualities are inherited at birth, others hold that the circumstances in which a person grows up are mainly responsible for the type of person he / she later becomes. Write a composition of about 400 words on the following topic, expressing your views.
ESSENTIAL QUALITIES: INHERITED OR NOT?
In the first part of your writing you should present your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your response on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.